. The expansion of Market Based Programming (MBP) in general should be encouraged, in order to improve understanding of market systems and to identify additional modalities that are well suited to context and may offer increases in scale and efficiency. Information about relevant market systems should be included as a routine part of context assessment and response analysis in all WASH programmes.

. Cash Transfer Programming (CTP) should be regarded as a programme modality that may be effective in overcoming financial barriers to accessing WASH goods and services when combined with complementary approaches in contexts with an enabling environment.

. In addition to the above, Multi-Purpose cash Grants (MPG) may be effective in meeting basic WASH needs when part of a sufficiently resourced Minimum Expenditure Basket (MEB) developed with specialist technical WASH input as part of a strong multi-sectoral coordination mechanism. MPGs should not be used in isolation but can play a role in the delivery of WASH programmes alongside other modalities.

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